what is enlightenment

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What Is Enlightenment? Eighteenth Century Answers And Twentieth Century Questions Philosophical Traditions

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This collection contains the first English translations of a group of important eighteenth-century German essays that address the question, "What is Enlightenment?" The book also includes newly translated and newly written interpretive essays by leading historians and philosophers, which examine the origins of eighteenth-century debate on Enlightenment and explore its significance for the present.

In recent years, critics from across the political and philosophical spectrum have condemned the Enlightenment for its complicity with any number of present-day social and cultural maladies. It has rarely been noticed, however, that at the end of the Enlightenment, German thinkers had already begun a scrutiny of their age so wide-ranging that there are few subsequent criticisms that had not been considered by the close of the eighteenth century. Among the concerns these essays address are the importance of freedom of expression, the relationship between faith and reason, and the responsibility of the Enlightenment for revolutions.

Included are translations of works by such well-known figures as Immanuel Kant, Moses Mendelssohn, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, and Johann Georg Hamann, as well as essays by thinkers whose work is virtually unknown to American readers. These eighteenth-century texts are set against interpretive essays by such major twentieth-century figures as Max Horkheimer, Jürgen Habermas, and Michel Foucault.

What Is Enlightenment?

Author : William Bodri
Language : English
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What is spiritual enlightenment? You often hear the term "enlightenment" in deep spiritual discussions, but it is almost impossible to find anyone who can definitively say what "enlightenment," "awakening," "union," or "self-realization" actually entails. In fact, many religions differ as to their proposals for the highest state of spiritual attainment -- which is often called salvation, liberation or becoming one with God (union) -- that often do not even include enlightenment, or they may simply recognize it under a different name.

Enlightenment is the direct realization of our self-nature, source essence, or true self. This awakening constitutes directly experiencing the source and essence of reality, the original dimension of equal identity where mind and matter are one because you have found the ultimate underlying, true nature of all things. Enlightenment means to directly, experientially realize that basic substance of cosmic life where matter and consciousness are the same substance, which then consequently opens up various powers and a universal visage.

That transcendental source nature you discover is often called God, Ein Sof, Allah, Brahman, dharmakaya, fundamental nature, Buddha-nature, Tao, Emptiness or Self. Some of the secular designations include Pure Consciousness, pristine awareness, one mind, uncreated light, clear light or infinite universal illumination to denote the fact that It is the ultimate substratum that gives birth to the knowingness of manifest consciousness.

The way to this realization is through meditation and other spiritual practices that teach you to stop clinging to states of consciousness. You must always allow consciousness to arise, but should not cling to thoughts to thus become a perfectly free, effortless, natural and spontaneous individual. As your thoughts quiet down because of this practice, your body's chakras and chi channels will open up (you will experience a kundalini awakening) and you will gradually stop identifying your body and mind as your self. In time you can attain a pristine realization of selflessness (a state absent of the ego, I-thought or sense of separate "I-amness") that constitutes enlightenment.

Regardless of your religious tradition, when you diligently cultivate spiritual practice you will gradually pass through many transitional stages of progress and particular spiritual experiences. These experiences can include special degrees of one-pointed concentration (absorption) called dhyana and samadhi attainments, which prepare you for enlightenment if you cultivate far enough. Many religions, both Eastern and Western, describe these possible achievements in great detail, and many such experiences that are not enlightenment are analyzed within so that practitioners do not incorrectly assume they have actually achieved awakening when they have only experienced inferior attainments. The various achievement levels to this awakening of self-realization that are explained.

This book is the first of its kind to collect not only the rare autobiographical and biographical accounts from many traditions of individuals who achieved enlightenment (because it is a non-denominational accomplishment), but also the relevant passages in each tradition's scriptures that reveal the characteristics of the original nature that everyone awakens to (such as perfect purity, changelessness, infinity, eternality, and bliss). The reader quickly comes to the conclusion that despite sectarian differences, everyone is actually awakening to the very same thing. It cannot be anything else! The pathway to enlightenment is analyzed using many different religious paths and frameworks. Many common errors of spiritual practice and misinterpretations of spiritual states are also revealed to help individuals become correctly oriented so that they can attain enlightenment as well.

Answering The Question What Is Enlightenment?

Author : Immanuel Kant
Language : English
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Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher from Königsberg (today Kaliningrad of Russia), researching, lecturing and writing on philosophy and anthropology during and at the end of the 18th Century Enlightenment.

In Kant’s essay “Answering the Question: What is Enlightenment?”, Kant defined the Enlightenment as an age shaped by the Latin motto Sapere aude ("Dare to Know"). Kant maintained that one ought to think autonomously, free of the dictates of external authority. His work reconciled many of the differences between the rationalist and empiricist traditions of the 18th century. He had a decisive impact on the Romantic and German Idealist philosophies of the 19th century, and his work has also been a starting point for many 20th century philosophers.

What Is Enlightenment

Author : Immanuel Kant
Language : English
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What is Enlightenment
Immanuel Kant, german philosopher (1724-1804)

This ebook presents «What is Enlightenment», from Immanuel Kant. A dynamic table of contents enables to jump directly to the chapter selected.

Table of Contents
-01- About this book

Great Ideas An Answer To The Question What Is Enlightenment? Penguin Great Ideas

Author : Immanuel Kant
Language : English
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Immanuel Kant was one of the most influential philosophers in the whole of Europe, who changed Western thought with his examinations of reason and the nature of reality. In these writings he investigates human progress, civilization, morality and why, to be truly enlightened, we must all have the freedom and courage to use our own intellect. Throughout history, some books have changed the world. They have transformed the way we see ourselves - and each other. They have inspired debate, dissent, war and revolution. They have enlightened, outraged, provoked and comforted. They have enriched lives - and destroyed them. Now Penguin brings you the works of the great thinkers, pioneers, radicals and visionaries whose ideas shook civilization and helped make us who we are.

What Is Buddhist Enlightenment?

Author : Dale S. Wright
Language : English
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What kind of person should I strive to be? What ideals should I pursue in my life? These basic human questions and others like them are components of the overall question that guides this book: What is enlightenment? As Dale Wright argues, any serious practitioner of human life, religious or not, confronts the challenge of living an authentic life, of overcoming common human disabilities like greed, hatred, and delusion that give rise to excessive suffering. Why then, Wright asks, is this essential question often avoided, even discouraged among Buddhists?

One reason frequently cited by Buddhists is that pondering a distant goal might be a waste of energy that would be better applied to practice: Quiet the flow of obsessive thinking, put yourself in a mindful state of presence, and let enlightenment take care of itself. In this book, however, Wright contends that pondering this question is meditative practice--that attentive inquiry of this kind is essential as the starting point and guide for any mindful practice of life. Meditative reflection on the meaning of enlightenment focuses us on our aim and direction in life. It guides us in shaping our practices, our ideals, and the kinds of lives we will live. Asking what enlightenment is as a basic form of meditation helps to activate our lives and get transformative practice underway. From Wright's perspective, there is no more important question to ask than this one.

What is Buddhist Enlightenment? offers a wide-ranging exploration of issues that have a bearing on the contemporary meaning of enlightenment, including a concluding section with 10 theses that answer the title's question. Written by a leading scholar of Buddhism, the book balances deep learning and an accessible style, offering valuable insights for students, scholars, and practitioners alike. While he takes an examination of what enlightenment has been in past Buddhist traditions as his point of departure, Wright's historical considerations yield to the question that our lives press upon us--what kinds of lives should we aspire to live here, now, and into the future?

The Lazy Man S Way To Enlightenment What You Re Looking For Is What Is Looking

Author : David A. Bhodan
Language : English
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Who are you? Who are you Really? Are you the ego-personality with a history, the one who was born, given a name and birth date, taught right from wrong and good from bad? Are you the body you move around in, you know, that thing that will surely die, because it was born? Are you the mind, with all its content, perhaps avoiding or chasing after something? Are you really a separate person amongst many other separate people, living in this world for a period of time - or have you just assumed that? "The Lazy Man's Way to Enlightenment - What You're Looking For is What is Looking," is about going beyond what we've been told we are, beyond religion and philosophy, in order to discover who we really are, not who we think or assume we are. It's about stripping away all that is false, until only what is true remains.

Foundations Of The Metaphysics Of Morals And What Is Enlightenment? The Library Of Liberal Arts

Author : Immanuel Kant
Language : English
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This book is a reproduction of a volume found in the collection of the University of Michigan Library. It is produced from digital images created through the Library's large-scale digitization efforts. The digital images for this book were cleaned and prepared for printing through automatic processes. Despite the cleaning process, occasional flaws may still be present that were part of the original work itself, or introduced during digitization, including missing pages.

What Is Property? An Inquiry Into The Principle Of Right And Government

Author : P.J. Proudhon
Language : English
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Proudhon was a very influential European philosopher and politician in the 19th century.

Mindfulness Achieve Inner Peace And Harmony With Mindfulness And Meditation Live Life Without Stress And Anxiety Mindfulness Meditation Buddhism Yoga Enlightenment

Author : Michael A. McKenna
Language : English
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Enhance Your Everyday Life with the Amazing Benefits of Mindfulness

Mindfulness is a form of awareness, of the present moment. Mindfulness is a way of life, a new way to be, free of stress and anxiety. It is a way to experience your thoughts, sensations and emotions, without trying to control them, untangle yourself and be free. Its viability has been expounded by everyone from the Buddha to modern medical practitioners.

This book is your brief, practical guide to making mindfulness a part of your life through a range of techniques, which combine aspects of Buddhism, modern medicine, yoga, meditation as well as art-based methods. Being more mindful is a sure shot way to tackle stress and anxiety in your daily life, with long-term goals of inner peace and harmony.

The great thing about mindfulness is you can use its techniques anywhere, anytime. There are a range of simple exercises in the book. Use them as guidelines in your mindful journey. Start small. Stay focused. With regular practice, they will also improve your mental health, overall brain function and physical well-being apart from other benefits. There is no down side to being more mindful, and this is just the book to help you get started.

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  • What is Mindfulness?
  • Brief history of Mindfulness—from Buddhism to Zinn
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Tags: mindfulness, meditation, yoga, stress, anxiety, inner peace, mental health, spirit of harmony

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