the crime of conspiracy in international criminal law

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The Nuremberg Military Tribunals And The Origins Of International Criminal Law

Author : Kevin Jon Heller
ISBN : 9780191652868
Genre : Law
File Size : 57. 29 MB
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This book provides the first comprehensive legal analysis of the twelve war crimes trials held in the American zone of occupation between 1946 and 1949, collectively known as the Nuremberg Military Tribunals (NMTs). The judgments the NMTs produced have played a critical role in the development of international criminal law, particularly in terms of how courts currently understand war crimes, crimes against humanity, and the crime of aggression. The trials are also of tremendous historical importance, because they provide a far more comprehensive picture of Nazi atrocities than their more famous predecessor, the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg (IMT). The IMT focused exclusively on the 'major war criminals'-the Goerings, the Hesses, the Speers. The NMTs, by contrast, prosecuted doctors, lawyers, judges, industrialists, bankers-the private citizens and lower-level functionaries whose willingness to take part in the destruction of millions of innocents manifested what Hannah Arendt famously called 'the banality of evil'. The book is divided into five sections. The first section traces the evolution of the twelve NMT trials. The second section discusses the law, procedure, and rules of evidence applied by the tribunals, with a focus on the important differences between Law No. 10 and the Nuremberg Charter. The third section, the heart of the book, provides a systematic analysis of the tribunals' jurisprudence. It covers Law No. 10's core crimes-crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity-as well as the crimes of conspiracy and membership in a criminal organization. The fourth section then examines the modes of participation and defenses that the tribunals recognized. The final section deals with sentencing, the aftermath of the trials, and their historical legacy.

The Crime Of Conspiracy In International Criminal Law

Author : Juliet Okoth
ISBN : 9789462650176
Genre : Law
File Size : 47. 20 MB
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This book looks at the relevance of conspiracy in international criminal law. It establishes that conspiracy was introduced into international criminal law for purposes of prevention and to combat the collective nature of participation in commission of international crimes. Its use as a tool of accountability has, however, been affected by conflicting conceptual perceptions of conspiracy from common law and civil law countries. This conflict is displayed in the decisions on conspiracy by the international criminal tribunals, and finally culminates into the exclusion of punishment of conspiracy in the Rome Statute. It is questionable whether this latest development on the law of conspiracy was a prudent decision. While the function of conspiracy as a mode of liability is satisfactorily covered by the modes of participation in the Rome Statute, its function as a purely inchoate crime used to punish incomplete crimes is missing. This book creates a case for inclusion in the Rome Statute, punishment of conspiracies involving international crimes that do not extend beyond the conceptual stage, to reinforce the Statute’s purpose of prevention. The conspiracy concept proposed is one that reflects the characteristics acceptable under both common law and civil law systems.

Cassese S International Criminal Law

Author : Antonio Cassese
ISBN : 9780199694921
Genre : Law
File Size : 73. 95 MB
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Revised edition of: International criminal law, second edition, 2008.

The Crime Of Aggression In International Criminal Law

Author : Sergey Sayapin
ISBN : 9789067049276
Genre : Law
File Size : 50. 86 MB
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Since after the Second World War, the crime of aggression is – along with genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes – a “core crime” under international law. However, despite a formal recognition of aggression as a matter of international criminal law and the reinforcement of the international legal regulation of the use of force by States, numerous international armed conflicts occurred but no one was ever prosecuted for aggression since 1949. This book comprehensively analyses the historical development of the criminalisation of aggression, scrutinises in a detailed manner the relevant jurisprudence of the Nuremberg and Tokyo Tribunals as well as of the Nuremberg follow-up trials, and makes proposals for a more successful prosecution for aggression in the future. In identifying customary international law on the subject, the volume draws upon a wealth of applicable sources of national criminal law and puts forward a useful classification of States ́ legislative approaches towards the criminalisation of aggression at the national level. It also offers a detailed analysis of the current international legal regulation of the use of force and of the Rome Statute ́s substantive and procedural provisions pertaining to the exercise of the International Criminal Court ́s jurisdiction with respect to the crime of aggression, after 1 January 2017.

Individual Criminal Responsibility For Core International Crimes

Author : Ciara Damgaard
ISBN : 9783540787815
Genre : Law
File Size : 39. 35 MB
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1.1 Opening Remarks and Objectives Crimes against international law are committed by men, not by abstract entities, and only by punishing individuals who commit such crimes can the provisions of international law 2 be enforced. This is, perhaps, the most renowned citation from the judgment of the Int- national Military Tribunal at Nuremberg (“IMT”). In the six decades which have passed since the IMT judgment was handed down, the recognition of the c- cept of individual criminal responsibility for core international crimes has been significantly reinforced and developed, particularly since the establishment of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (“ICTY”) and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (“ICTR”) in the 1990’s and most recently the International Criminal Court (“ICC”). The media has, of course, played a crucial role in increasing awareness of this concept, especially amongst the general populace. Indeed, the concept has, arguably, a much higher profile today, than ever before in its history. However, the concept of individual criminal responsibility for core inter- tional crimes is neither as straightforward nor as single-facetted, as might appear on first glance. While the general principle behind the concept does not generate too many difficulties, it is in its practical application that the more challenging aspects of the concept are brought to the fore. Each of these ‘challenging - pects’ can also be described as a ‘pertinent issue’ of the concept of individual criminal responsibility for core international crimes.

International Criminal Law

Author : Ilias Bantekas
ISBN : 9781135241797
Genre : Law
File Size : 44. 28 MB
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Providing an introduction to, and detailed examination of substantive, enforcement and procedural aspects of international criminal law, this book’s examination of international and transnational crimes under treaty and customary law has been fully updated and revised. Exploring the enforcement of international criminal law through an investigation of the practice of the Security Council-based tribunals for Yugoslavia and Rwanda, the International Criminal Court and other hybrid tribunals, such as those for Cambodia, Sierra Leone, Lockerbie and truth commissions, the authors look at terrorism, offences against the person, piracy and jurisdiction, and immunities amongst a variety of other topics. New to this edition are four additional chapters on: various forms of liability and participation in international crime war crimes crimes against humanity genocide and illegal rendition. This is an ideal text for undergraduate and postgraduate students of law or international relations, practitioners and those interested in gaining an insight into international criminal law

International Criminal Law Cases And Materials

Author : Ellen S. Podgor
ISBN : 9780327175124
Genre : Law
File Size : 51. 67 MB
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International Criminal Law provides a set of teaching materials furnishing students with a grounding in the transnational issues likely to arise in federal criminal cases, and also in the law produced as a consequence of international efforts to impose criminal responsibility on the perpetrators of human rights atrocities. International Criminal Law offers, for teaching purposes, a collection of cases (mainly domestic) and other materials, together with notes and questions about those cases and materials. The first part introduces the field of international criminal law, and includes a chapter on the general principles of both domestic and international law governing efforts to apply U.S. criminal law to foreign crimes and foreign criminals. The second part covers the specific application of those principles to cases involving the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, antitrust and securities regulation, export controls, computer crimes, narcotics and money laundering, piracy and terrorism, and torture. The third part addresses procedural aspects of trying such cases in U.S. courts. This section also treats the extraterritorial application of the U.S. Constitution, immunities from jurisdiction, mutual assistance in criminal cases, extradition, alternatives to extradition, prisoner transfers, recognition of foreign criminal judgments, and the bearing on international human rights instruments on criminal procedure. The final part of International Criminal Law deals with the prosecution of international crimes, and takes up the question of what crimes constitute international crimes. This section also discusses the Nuremberg and Tokyo precedents, the ad hoc tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda, the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, and the substantive law of international crimes such as aggression, genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. International Criminal Law is supplemented annually. This eBook features links to Lexis Advance for further legal research options.

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