stratigraphic paleobiology understanding the distribution of fossil taxa in time and space

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Stratigraphic Paleobiology

Author : Mark E. Patzkowsky
ISBN : 9780226649375
Genre : Science
File Size : 48. 36 MB
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Whether the fossil record should be read at face value or whether it presents a distorted view of the history of life is an argument seemingly as old as many fossils themselves. In the late 1700s, Georges Cuvier argued for a literal interpretation, but in the early 1800s, Charles Lyell’s gradualist view of the earth’s history required a more nuanced interpretation of that same record. To this day, the tension between literal and interpretive readings lies at the heart of paleontological research, influencing the way scientists view extinction patterns and their causes, ecosystem persistence and turnover, and the pattern of morphologic change and mode of speciation. With Stratigraphic Paleobiology, Mark E. Patzkowsky and Steven M. Holland present a critical framework for assessing the fossil record, one based on a modern understanding of the principles of sediment accumulation. Patzkowsky and Holland argue that the distribution of fossil taxa in time and space is controlled not only by processes of ecology, evolution, and environmental change, but also by the stratigraphic processes that govern where and when sediment that might contain fossils is deposited and preserved. The authors explore the exciting possibilities of stratigraphic paleobiology, and along the way demonstrate its great potential to answer some of the most critical questions about the history of life: How and why do environmental niches change over time? What is the tempo and mode of evolutionary change and what processes drive this change? How has the diversity of life changed through time, and what processes control this change? And, finally, what is the tempo and mode of change in ecosystems over time?

Rereading The Fossil Record

Author : David Sepkoski
ISBN : 9780226748559
Genre : Science
File Size : 47. 96 MB
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Although fossils have provided some of the most important evidence for evolution, the discipline of paleontology has not always had a central place in evolutionary biology. Beginning in Darwin's day, and for much of the twentieth century, paleontologists were often regarded as mere fossil collectors by many evolutionary biologists, their attempts to contribute to evolutionary theory ignored or regarded with scorn. In the 1950s, however, paleontologists began mounting a counter-movement that insisted on the valid, important, and original contribution of paleontology to evolutionary theory. This movement, called “paleobiology” by its proponents, advocated for an approach to the fossil record that was theoretical, quantitative, and oriented towards explaining the broad patterns of evolution and extinction in the history of life. Rereading the Fossil Record provides, as never before, a historical account of the origin, rise, and importance of paleobiology, from the mid-nineteenth century to the late 1980s. Drawing on a wealth of archival material, David Sepkoski shows how the movement was conceived and promoted by a small but influential group of paleontologists—including Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge, among others—and examines the intellectual, disciplinary, and political dynamics involved in the ascendency of paleobiology. By emphasizing the close relationship between paleobiology and other evolutionary disciplines, this book writes a new chapter in the history of evolutionary biology, while also offering insights into the dynamics of disciplinary change in modern science.

Show Me The Bone

Author : Gowan Dawson
ISBN : 9780226332734
Genre : Science
File Size : 88. 99 MB
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"Show Me the Bone "is the first book to examine the famous claim of nineteenth-century paleontologists that, from just a single bone, they could identify and sometimes even reconstruct previously unknown prehistoric creatures. Show me the bone, and I will describe the animal! Their extraordinary displays of predictive reasoning relied on the law of correlation, which proposed that each element of an animal corresponds mutually with all the others, so that a carnivorous tooth must be accompanied by a particular kind of jawbone, neck, and stomach. This principle was pivotal in the development of the new science of paleontology, and in both Britain and America these paleontological feats became some of the most sensational and widely-reported events of the century. In telling the history of the only fundamental axiom of nineteenth-century science without a dedicated modern study, "Show Me the Bone" reveals more fully than ever before how the practices of elite men of science were shaped by their involvement with the non-scientific public. Anyone concerned with science and religion, popular science, scientific naturalism, and science and literature will profit from reading this book. "

Principles Of Sequence Stratigraphy

Author : Octavian Catuneanu
ISBN : 9780080473987
Genre : Science
File Size : 75. 57 MB
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Principles of Sequence Stratigraphy provides an in-depth coverage and impartial assessment of all current ideas and models in the field of sequence stratigraphy. Even though widely popular among all groups interested in the analysis of sedimentary basin fills, both in academia and in the industry, sequence stratigraphy is yet a difficult undertaking due to an overwhelming jargon and the persistence of conflicting approaches as to how the sequence stratigraphic method should be applied to the rock record. This textbook examines the relationship between such conflicting approaches from the perspective of a unifying platform, demonstrating that sufficient common ground exists to eliminate terminology barriers and to facilitate communication between all practitioners of sequence stratigraphy. This work is not only a review of past and current literature, but also includes key original viewpoints and is illustrated with new graphic material and numerous field examples of outcrop, core, well log and 3D seismic data in full colour. The book is addressed to anyone interested in understanding and applying the method of sequence stratigraphic analysis, from students to geologists, geophysicists and reservoir engineers. Sequence stratigraphy remains the most recent paradigm in the broad field of sedimentary geology, with tremendous potential to deciphering the record of global change and to improving the success of economic exploration. * Offers theoretical guidelines of how the facies and time relationships are expected to be under specific circumstances such as subsidence patterns, sediment supply, topographic gradients, etc. * Contains numerous high-quality and full-color diagrams, photographs and illustrations, virtually on every aid in comprehension of the subject * Features a dedicated chapter on discussions and conclusions incorporating all previous chapters with references, basic principles and strategies * Provides an extensive list of references for further reading, as well as an author and subject index for quick information access

The Meaning Of Fossils

Author : M. J. S. Rudwick
ISBN : 0226731030
Genre : Nature
File Size : 46. 43 MB
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Examines the way in which the study of fossils in five historical periods since the Renaissance reflects man's changing view of nature


Author : Derek Turner
ISBN : 9781139497787
Genre : Science
File Size : 31. 58 MB
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In the wake of the paleobiological revolution of the 1970s and 1980s, paleontologists continue to investigate far-reaching questions about how evolution works. Many of those questions have a philosophical dimension. How is macroevolution related to evolutionary changes within populations? Is evolutionary history contingent? How much can we know about the causes of evolutionary trends? How do paleontologists read the patterns in the fossil record to learn about the underlying evolutionary processes? Derek Turner explores these and other questions, introducing the reader to exciting recent work in the philosophy of paleontology and to theoretical issues including punctuated equilibria and species selection. He also critically examines some of the major accomplishments and arguments of paleontologists of the last 40 years.

Introduction To Paleobiology And The Fossil Record

Author : Michael Benton
ISBN : 9781118685402
Genre : Science
File Size : 57. 11 MB
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This book presents a comprehensive overview of the science of the history of life. Paleobiologists bring many analytical tools to bear in interpreting the fossil record and the book introduces the latest techniques, from multivariate investigations of biogeography and biostratigraphy to engineering analysis of dinosaur skulls, and from homeobox genes to cladistics. All the well-known fossil groups are included, including microfossils and invertebrates, but an important feature is the thorough coverage of plants, vertebrates and trace fossils together with discussion of the origins of both life and the metazoans. All key related subjects are introduced, such as systematics, ecology, evolution and development, stratigraphy and their roles in understanding where life came from and how it evolved and diversified. Unique features of the book are the numerous case studies from current research that lead students to the primary literature, analytical and mathematical explanations and tools, together with associated problem sets and practical schedules for instructors and students. “..any serious student of geology who does not pick this book off the shelf will be putting themselves at a huge disadvantage. The material may be complex, but the text is extremely accessible and well organized, and the book ought to be essential reading for palaeontologists at undergraduate, postgraduate and more advanced levels—both in Britain as well as in North America.” Falcon-Lang, H., Proc. Geol. Assoc. 2010 “...this is an excellent introduction to palaeontology in general. It is well structured, accessibly written and pleasantly informative .....I would recommend this as a standard reference text to all my students without hesitation.” David Norman Geol Mag 2010 Companion website This book includes a companion website at: The website includes: · An ongoing database of additional Practical’s prepared by the authors · Figures from the text for downloading · Useful links for each chapter · Updates from the authors

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