maternal obesity

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Maternal Obesity And Pregnancy

Author : Per Glud Ovesen
ISBN : 9783642250231
Genre : Medical
File Size : 30. 69 MB
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A dramatic and worldwide increase is occurring in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Obese women carry a significant excess risk of a variety of serious complications during pregnancy, and in addition, maternal obesity predisposes to obesity in the offspring. This book provides a timely update on the latest knowledge on maternal obesity and pregnancy. A very wide range of issues are covered, including macrosomia and associated shoulder dystocia; the risk of miscarriage, malformations, and complications of pregnancy; the impact of hyperglycemia; clinical management; consequences for anesthesia and ultrasound; impacts on breastfeeding, fertility, and childhood obesity; and pregnancy following gastric surgery. All of the authors are recognized experts in their fields, and the book has been designed to meet the practical needs of obstetricians, gynecologists, internists, and general practitioners.

Maternal Obesity

Author : Matthew W. Gillman
ISBN : 9781107003965
Genre : Medical
File Size : 58. 15 MB
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Afflicting more than 300 million women across the globe, obesity has profound effects on health during pregnancy and on the wellbeing of the unborn child. In the face of such a challenging pandemic, this book reviews the latest research and provides up-to-date advice on clinical management. Maternal Obesity addresses the adverse effects of obesity among women of childbearing age, including infertility, medical complications, problems in labor, and adverse birth outcomes, and it reviews evidence that the obese mother's in utero environment has long-lasting influences on the health of the developing child. Chapters cover basic, clinical, and population perspectives, providing a range of valuable information from mechanistic insight through to public health and policy implications. Invaluable for obstetricians, gynaecologists, paediatricians, general and family physicians, subspecialists in obstetric and paediatric medicine, midwives, and dietitians, as well as researchers and public health policy makers seeking to tackle the burden of maternal obesity-related illness.

Folic Acid Fortification Maternal Obesity And Neural Tube Defects Policy Implications

Author :
ISBN : 9780549686163
Genre :
File Size : 47. 8 MB
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To reduce risk of folate preventable NTDs, especially in overweight and obese women, it may be necessary to increase the current level of folic acid fortification. However, further research is required to determine the optimal levels of fortification to achieve this goal without causing adverse health effects in the general population.

Maternal Obesity Inflammation And Insulin Resistance In Skeletal Muscle Of Fetal Sheep

Author : Xu Yan
ISBN : 9781109181081
Genre : Muscles
File Size : 81. 56 MB
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The embryo fetal stage is critical for skeletal muscle development because there is no net increase in muscle fiber number after birth. Obesity induces inflammatory responses, which might be associated with myogenesis and adipogenesis through the inhibitor of kappaB (IkappaB) kinase (IKK)/nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal obesity on myogenesis and adipogenesis, IKK/NF-kappaB and insulin related pathways in fetal skeletal muscle. Non-pregnant ewes were assigned to a control diet (Con, fed 100% of NRC nutrient recommendations, n = 7) or obesogenic diet (Obe, fed 150% of NRC recommendations, n = 7) from 60 days before to 135 days after conception (term 150 days) when fetal semitendenosus (St) skeletal muscle was sampled for analysis. Both mRNA and protein levels of the adipogenic marker, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma), were increased in Obe compared to Con fetal St muscle, indicating the up-regulation of adipogenesis. Phosphorylation of inhibitor kappaB kinase beta (IKKbeta) and NF-kappaB RelA/p65 were both increased in Obe fetal muscle, with a decrease in phosphorylation of IkappaB, which together indicate the activation of the IKK/NF-kappaB pathway. In addition, the mRNA levels of toll like receptor 2 (TLR2), toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) and cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14), which serve upstream of IKK/NF-kappaB pathway, were higher in Obe than in Con fetal muscle. An increase of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phophorylation of c-Jun (at Ser 63 and Ser 73) was also observed. Moreover, the protein level of insulin receptor, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) at Thr 172, Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) at Ser 79, protein kinase B (PKB or Akt) at Ser 473 were all reduced in Obe compared to Con fetal St muscle, while phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) was increased. In conclusion, our data showed that maternal obesity enhanced adipogenesis in fetal muscle; inflammatory IKK/NF-kappaB pathway, expression of toll like receptors and JNK pathway were up-regulated, whereas insulin related pathways involving insulin receptor, PKC, GLUT1, GLUT4, AMPK, ACC and Akt were down-regulated in fetal muscle of obese mothers.

Effect Of Maternal Obesity On Pregnancy Outcome In Gaza Governorate

Author : Suha Baloushah
ISBN : 3659571636
Genre :
File Size : 44. 51 MB
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Obesity is a major public health problem. It can be defined as an excess accumulation of body fat cells. Obesity is considered the fifth leading risk for global death. At least 2.8 million adults die each year as a result of being overweight or obese. Maternal obesity affect the health of mother in pregnancy and developing fetus that adversely increase risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia toxemia, macrosomic baby and birth defect. this study aimed to reveal the effect of maternal obesity on pregnancy outcome. The study found some factors that are associated with adverse maternal outcome. Increasing in obesity degree will risk of hypertensive disorder, gestational diabetes; and having macrosomic new born.the study provides possible intervention strategies that could contribute to reduce effect of maternal obesity on pregnancy outcome.

Impacts Of Maternal Obesity On Reducing Leptin Signaling In The Pituitary And Its Role In Depressing The Gh Igf1 Axis Resulting In Insulin Dysregulation And Increased Adiposity In Adult Offspring

Author : Tursunjan Nurmamat
ISBN : 1303471124
Genre : Adipose tissues
File Size : 21. 48 MB
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Obesity is a major health concern, and the world is facing a global epidemic of obesity with increasing rates. It is considered a disease state in itself, but more importantly, it is also a major risk factor for other serious diseases including type II diabetes, hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and coronary heart disease. Currently, obesity affects more than one third of the women of reproductive age in the United States. Not only does obesity during pregnancy lead to increased maternal health concerns, it is linked to increases in adiposity and components of the metabolic syndrome in their offspring. Both human epidemiological studies and animal models of maternal obesity have provided strong evidence for the association of maternal overnutrition/obesity during pregnancy with abnormal fetal organ development, increased offspring adiposity and insulin resistance. However, the mechanisms mediating the alterations in offspring metabolic dysfunction born to obese mothers are yet to be elucidated. Leptin, a hormone mainly produced by adipocytes, is well-known for its effect on appetite control in the hypothalamus; however, recent studies suggest that it may also play important roles in the pituitary regulating body composition. This dissertation mainly focuses on the possible role of pituitary leptin signaling in mediating the phenotype of increased adult offspring adiposity and insulin resistance programmed by in utero exposure to maternal overnutrition/obesity. Further, we investigated the effect of an early pregnancy dietary intervention on both mothers and fetuses in a sheep model of maternal obesity in search of a potential intervention strategy for obese human pregnancies. In the first experiment, we evaluated the impact of maternal obesity on offspring weight gain, adiposity and insulin resistance during an ad libitum feeding trial in adulthood. We found that both male and female offspring of overnourished/obese mothers (MO) had increased appetite, weight gain, percentage body fat and insulin resistance compared with offspring born to control fed mothers (CON). Then, we evaluated the hormonal profiles of male offspring at necropsy at the end of the feeding trial, and further determined the role of leptin signaling utilizing relevant tissue samples from the male offspring. We confirmed that pituitary leptin signaling was reduced and was associated with down-regulation of the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) axis in MO offspring compared with CON offspring. In the second experiment, we have evaluated the effect of reducing maternal global food intake in obese pregnant ewes to a maintenance level at day 28 of gestation which is equivalent to ~day 50 in human pregnancy. The results of this study are consistent with the concept that reducing maternal diet of obese overfed ewes to requirements from early gestation can prevent subsequent alterations in fetal growth, adiposity and glucose-insulin dynamics. Given the relative importance of maternal metabolic parameters on offspring development in humans, and the similarities between our ovine model data and those from obese pregnancies in humans, we suggest that our model could potentially lead to a better understanding of the specific control mechanisms involved.

Oxidative Stress And Inflammatory Mechanisms In Obesity Diabetes And The Metabolic Syndrome

Author : Helmut Sies
ISBN : 142004379X
Genre : Medical
File Size : 31. 87 MB
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Characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, metabolic syndrome is associated with the risks of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Obesity, which increases the incidence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and subsequently leads to increased stress and inflammation, appears to play a central role in the progression of the syndrome. Evidence of inflammatory processes in accumulated fat appears to be an early initiator of metabolic syndrome. Likewise, the more active angiotensin system in obesity may contribute to even greater oxidative stress that serves as a key signaling event in vascular remodeling. These factors strengthen obesity's association with oxidative stress. Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Mechanisms in Obesity, Diabetes, and the Metabolic Syndrome is designed to encourage the development of evidence-based nutritional and pharmacological therapies that can attenuate the impact of obesity-induced insulin resistance and ensuing metabolic syndrome. The book offers a deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the process. Edited by leading authorities on oxidative stress, the book's chapters report on cutting-edge research that explores intracellular events mediating or preventing oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory processes in obesity and type 2 diabetes. It also brings together research on the molecular mechanisms inherent in the progression of metabolic stress, includes phenotypic perspectives, and discusses dietary factors, including the role of micronutrients. The chapter authors, each a leading expert in his or her field, discuss different components of metabolic stress and obesity and their associations with oxidative stress and inflammation. The book fills a unique role as a base of knowledge for researchers seeking to develop nutritional and or pharmacological therapies, as well as clinicians seeking a better understanding of this increasingly common disease process.

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