flexoelectricity in liquid crystals theory experiments and applications

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Flexoelectricity In Liquid Crystals

Author : Agnes Buka
ISBN : 9781848167995
Genre : Science
File Size : 32. 5 MB
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The book intends to give a state-of-the-art overview of flexoelectricity, a linear physical coupling between mechanical (orientational) deformations and electric polarization, which is specific to systems with orientational order, such as liquid crystals. Chapters written by experts in the field shed light on theoretical as well as experimental aspects of research carried out since the discovery of flexoelectricity. Besides a common macroscopic (continuum) description the microscopic theory of flexoelectricity is also addressed. Electro-optic effects due to or modified by flexoelectricity as well as various (direct and indirect) measurement methods are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the role of flexoelectricity in pattern-forming instabilities. While the main focus of the book lies in flexoelectricity in nematic liquid crystals, peculiarities of other mesophases (bent-core systems, cholesterics, and smectics) are also reviewed. Flexoelectricity has relevance to biological (living) systems and can also offer possibilities for technical applications. The basics of these two interdisciplinary fields are also summarized.

Photorefractive Organic Materials And Applications

Author : Pierre-Alexandre Blanche
ISBN : 9783319293349
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 80. 57 MB
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This book provides comprehensive, state-of-the art coverage of photorefractive organic compounds, a class of material with the ability to change their index of refraction upon illumination. The change is both dynamic and reversible. Dynamic because no external processing is required for the index modulation to be revealed, and reversible because the index change can be modified or suppressed by altering the illumination pattern. These properties make photorefractive materials very attractive candidates for many applications such as image restoration, correlation, beam conjugation, non-destructive testing, data storage, imaging through scattering media, holographic imaging and display. The field of photorefractive organic material is also closely related to organic photovoltaic and light emitting diode (OLED), which makes new discoveries in one field applicable to others.

Fundamentals Of Liquid Crystal Devices

Author : Shin-Tson Wu
ISBN : 9780470032022
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 61. 54 MB
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From laptop computers and mobile phones to digital cinema, Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs) are integral components in an increasing array of highly desirable consumer electronics and communication devices, and are already the predominant technology used in flat panel displays. This inter-disciplinary book is intended as an introductory guide to the fundamental properties of liquid crystals and their applications in display and photonic devices, providing a basic understanding of the physics, optics, electro-optics, and material aspects for state-of-the-art display and photonic devices. Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices includes: A comprehensive overview of LCDs including liquid crystal physics, electro-optical properties, simulation techniques and display and photonic applications. Numerous examples and case studies, solved problems and challenging homework conundrums starting with basic physics and gradually introducing advanced device concepts and structures. The principles for designing advanced specialist transmissive, reflective, and transflective liquid crystal displays. Chapters on emerging technologies such as tuneable liquid crystal photonic devices including laser beam steering, light switches for telecommunication and tunable-focus lenses. Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices is a valuable resource for advanced undergraduate and graduate students following display systems courses, who will benefit from its systematic approach. The introduction of advanced device concepts and structures means that display engineers, scientists, and technicians active in the field can also utilise this unique resource, as can developers of a wide range of systems and applications. The Society for Information Display (SID) is an international society, which has the aim of encouraging the development of all aspects of the field of information display. Complementary to the aims of the society, the Wiley-SID series is intended to explain the latest developments in information display technology at a professional level. The broad scope of the series addresses all facets of information displays from technical aspects through systems and prototypes to standards and ergonomics

Surfaces And Interfaces Of Liquid Crystals

Author : Theo Rasing
ISBN : 9783662101575
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 26. 13 MB
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This book describes the state of the art of our understanding of liquid-crystal interfaces on a molecular level. The interactions of liquid crystal molecules with a surface play an essential role in the operation of liquid crystal displays (LCD's) and other LC devices that are based on the controllable anchoring of LC molecules on polymer coated surfaces. This book addresses the microscopic interaction between a macromolecule (liquid crystal, polymer) and a wall, using state of the art surface and interface-sensitive experimental techniques, such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM), Linear and Nonlinear Optical Microscopy and (Dynamic) Light Scattering (DLS). These experimental techniques were complemented with computer simulations and supra molecular chemistry methods to develop controllable polymeric surfaces.

Liquid Crystals

Author : Sivaramakrishna Chandrasekhar
ISBN : 0521417473
Genre : Science
File Size : 37. 23 MB
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This is a new and greatly revised edition of Professor Chandrasekhar's classic book Liquid Crystals, first published in 1977. The subject of liquid crystals has grown into an exciting interdisciplinary research field with important practical applications. This book presents a systematic and self-contained treatment of the physics of the different types of thermotropic liquid crystals - the three classical types, nematic, cholesteric and smectic, and the newly discovered discotic type. Included is a description of the structures of these four main types and their polymorphic modifications, their thermodynamical, optical and mechanical properties and their behaviour under external fields. The basic principles underlying the major applications of liquid crystals in display technology and in thermography are also discussed. This book will be of great value to advanced students and researchers in condensed matter physics, chemical physics, materials science and technology with an interest in the physics, chemistry and applications of liquid crystals.

Adsorption Phenomena And Anchoring Energy In Nematic Liquid Crystals

Author : Giovanni Barbero
ISBN : 1420037455
Genre : Science
File Size : 22. 40 MB
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Despite the large quantity of phenomenological information concerning the bulk properties of nematic phase liquid crystals, little is understood about the origin of the surface energy, particularly the surface, interfacial, and anchoring properties of liquid crystals that affect the performance of liquid crystal devices. Self-contained and unique, Adsorption Phenomena and Anchoring Energy in Nematic Liquid Crystals provides an account of new and established results spanning three decades of research into the problems of anchoring energy and adsorption phenomena in liquid crystals. The book contains a detailed discussion of the origin and possible sources of anchoring energy in nematic liquid crystals, emphasizing the dielectric contribution to the anchoring energy in particular. Beginning with fundamental surface and anchoring properties of liquid crystals and the definition of the nematic phase, the authors explain how selective ion adsorption, dielectric energy density, thickness dependence, and bias voltage dependence influence the uniform alignment of liquid crystals and affect the performance of liquid crystal devices. They also discuss fundamental equations regulating the adsorption phenomenon and the dynamic aspects of ion adsorption phenomenon in liquid crystalline systems. Adsorption Phenomena and Anchoring Energy in Nematic Liquid Crystals serves as an excellent source of reference for graduates and researchers working in liquid crystals, complex fluids, condensed matter physics, statistical physics, chemical engineering, and electronic engineering, as well as providing a useful general introduction to and background information on the nematic liquid crystal phase.

Smectic And Columnar Liquid Crystals

Author : Patrick Oswald
ISBN : 1420036343
Genre : Science
File Size : 27. 90 MB
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Liquid crystals allow us to perform experiments that provide insight into fundamental problems of modern physics, such as phase transitions, frustration, elasticity, hydrodynamics, defects, growth phenomena, and optics. Smectic and Columnar Liquid Crystals: Concepts and Physical Properties Illustrated by Experiments is a result of personal research and of the graduate lectures given by the authors at the École Normale Supérieure de Lyon and the University of Paris VII, respectively. The book examines lamellar (smectic) and columnar liquid crystals, which, in addition to orientational order, possess 1D, 2D or 3D positional order. This volume illustrates original physical concepts using methodically numerous experiments, theoretical developments, and diagrams. Topics include rheology and plasticity, ferroelectricity, analogies with superconductors, hexatic order and 2D-melting, equilibrium shapes, facetting, and the Mullins-Sekerka instability, as well as phase transitions in free films and membrane vibrations. Nematic and cholesteric liquid crystals are covered by the authors in a separate volume entitled Nematic and Cholesteric Liquid Crystals: Concepts and Physical Properties Illustrated by Experiments. Smectic and Columnar Liquid Crystals is an ideal introduction and a valuable source of reference for theoretical and experimental studies of advanced students and researchers in liquid crystals, condensed matter physics, and materials science.

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