compact plasma and focused ion beams

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Compact Plasma And Focused Ion Beams

Author : Sudeep Bhattacharjee
ISBN : 9781466557925
Genre : Science
File Size : 36. 69 MB
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Recent research has brought the application of microwaves from the classical fields of heating, communication, and generation of plasma discharges into the generation of compact plasmas that can be used for applications such as FIB and small plasma thrusters. However, these new applications bring with them a new set of challenges. With coverage ranging from the basics to new and emerging applications, Compact Plasma and Focused Ion Beams discusses how compact high-density microwave plasmas with dimensions smaller than the geometrical cutoff dimension can be generated and utilized for providing focused ion beams of various elements. Starting with the fundamentals of the cutoff problem for wave propagation in waveguides and plasma diagnostics, the author goes on to explain in detail the plasma production by microwaves in a compact geometry and narrow tubes. He then thoroughly discusses wave interaction with bounded plasmas and provides a deeper understanding of the physics. The book concludes with an up-to-date account of recent research on pulsed microwaves and the application of compact microwave plasmas for multi-element FIB. It provides a consolidated and unified description of the emerging areas in plasma science and technology utilizing wave-based plasma sources based on the author’s own work and experience. The book will be useful not only to established researchers in this area but will also serve as an excellent introduction to those interested in applying these ideas to various current and new applications.

Maskless Resistless Ion Beam Lithography

Author :
ISBN : OCLC:68488597
Genre :
File Size : 30. 85 MB
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As the dimensions of semiconductor devices are scaled down, in order to achieve higher levels of integration, optical lithography will no longer be sufficient for the needs of the semiconductor industry. Alternative next-generation lithography (NGL) approaches, such as extreme ultra-violet (EUV), X-ray, electron-beam, and ion projection lithography face some challenging issues with complicated mask technology and low throughput. Among the four major alternative NGL approaches, ion beam lithography is the only one that can provide both maskless and resistless patterning. As such, it can potentially make nano-fabrication much simpler. This thesis investigates a focused ion beam system for maskless, resistless patterning that can be made practical for high-volume production. In order to achieve maskless, resistless patterning, the ion source must be able to produce a variety of ion species. The compact FIB system being developed uses a multicusp plasma ion source, which can generate ion beams of various elements, such as O2, BF2, P+ etc., for surface modification and doping applications. With optimized source condition, around 85% of BF2+, over 90% of O2+ and P+ have been achieved. The brightness of the multicusp-plasma ion source is a key issue for its application to maskless ion beam lithography. It can be substantially improved by optimizing the source configuration and extractor geometry. Measured brightness of 2 keV He+ beam is as high as 440 A/cm2 · Sr, which represents a 30x improvement over prior work. Direct patterning of Si thin film using a focused O2+ ion beam has been investigated. A thin surface oxide film can be selectively formed using 3 keV O2+ ions with the dose of 1015 cm−2. The oxide can then serve as a hard mask for patterning of the Si film. The process flow and the experimental results for directly patterned poly-Si features are presented. The formation of shallow pn-junctions in bulk silicon wafers by scanning focused P+ beam implantation at 5 keV is also presented. With implantation dose of around 1016 cm−2, the electron concentration is about 2.5 x 1018 cm−3 and electron mobility is around 200 cm2/V·s. To demonstrate the suitability of scanning FIB lithography for the manufacture of integrated circuit devices, SOI MOSFET fabrication using the maskless, resistless ion beam lithography is demonstrated. An array of microcolumns can be built by stacking multi-aperture electrode and insulator layers. Because the multicusp plasma source can achieve uniform ion density over a large area, it can be used in conjunction with the array of microcolumns, for massively parallel FIB processing to achieve reasonable exposure throughput.

Plasmas And Fluids

Author : Panel on the Physics of Plasmas and Fluids
ISBN : 9780309542203
Genre : Science
File Size : 63. 30 MB
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Emerging Applications Of Vacuum Arc Produced Plasma Ion And Electron Beams

Author : Efim Oks
ISBN : 1402010656
Genre : Science
File Size : 47. 4 MB
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The NATO-sponsored Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on "Emerging Applications of Vacuum-Arc-Produced Plasma, Ion and Electron Beams" was held at the Baikal Dunes Resort, Lake Baikal, Russia, on June 24-28, 2002. Participants were from NATO countries Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, Turkey and the USA, and from NATO partner countries Bulgaria, Russia, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. The goal of the meeting was to bring together researchers involved in novel applications of plasmas and ion/electron beams formed from vacuum arc discharges, especially in less conventional or emerging scientific areas such as new perspectives on vacuum arc phenomena, generation of high charge state metal ions, heavy ion accelerator injection, multi-layer thin film synthesis, biological applications, generation of high-current high-density electron beams, and more. It was our hope that the meeting would engender new research directions and help to establish new collaborations, prompt new thinking for research and technology applications of vacuum arc science, and in general foster development of the field. The Workshop was a great success, as was clearly felt by all of the attendees. The small number of participants at the meeting tended to encourage a high level of closeness and communication between individuals. The location, a small resort on the western side of Lake Baikal in the vicinity of Irkutsk, was ideal - the isolated location, small and quiet, was excellent and was most conducive to discussion among individuals and small groups quite apart from the formal presentations.

Energy Research Abstracts

Author :
ISBN : MSU:31293011519125
Genre : Power resources
File Size : 74. 19 MB
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Includes all works deriving from DOE, other related government-sponsored information and foreign nonnuclear information.

Radiophysical And Geomagnetic Effects Of Rocket Burn And Launch In The Near The Earth Environment

Author : Leonid F. Chernogor
ISBN : 9781466551145
Genre : Nature
File Size : 80. 6 MB
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Radiophysical and Geomagnetic Effects of Rocket Burn and Launch in the Near-the-Earth Environment describes experimental and theoretical studies on the effects of rocket burns and launchings on the near-the-Earth environment and geomagnetic fields. It illuminates the main geophysical and radiophysical effects on the ionosphere and magnetosphere surrounding the Earth that accompany rocket or cosmic apparatus burns and launchings from 1,000 to 10,000 kilometers. The book analyzes the disturbances of plasma and the ambient magnetic and electric fields in the near-Earth environment from rocket burns and launchings from Russia, Kazakhstan, the United States, China, France, and other global space centers. Describing the radiophysical effects of rocket burn and launching in the middle and upper ionosphere, it focuses on the ecological consequences of space exploration—detailing methods for eliminating the harmful effects of space exploration. Measurements for the studies presented in the book were carried out using numerous radiophysical methods and techniques, including HF Doppler radar, incoherent and coherent scatter radar systems, microwave radar, magnetometer, and optical instrumentation and spectroscopy. The book analyzes the effects of rocket burns and launchings from 1975 to 2010 in worldwide launch campaigns. This book is an ideal reference for scientists in geophysics and radiophysics, specialists in rocket launching, and ecologists. It is also suitable as a fundamental handbook for graduate and postgraduate students taking physics and cosmic sciences courses at the university level.

The Physics Of High Brightness Beams

Author : Jamie Rosenzweig
ISBN : 9810244223
Genre : Science
File Size : 68. 81 MB
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This book contains the proceedings of the 1999 ICFA workshop on the physics of high brightness beams. The workshop took a snapshot in time of a fast moving, interdisciplinary field driven by advanced applications such as high gradient, high energy physics linear colliders, high gain free electron lasers, heavy ion fusion, and transmutation of nuclear materials. While the field of high brightness beam physics has traditionally been divided into disparate electron and heavy ion communities, the workshop brought the two types of researchers together, so that a sharing of insights and methods could be achieved. Thus, this book represents a unifying step in the development of the diverse fascinating discipline of high brightness beam physics, with its challenges rooted in collective, nonlinear particle motion and ultra-high electromagnetic energy density.

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