cholesterol regulation of ion channels and receptors

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Cholesterol Regulation Of Ion Channels And Receptors

Author : Irena Levitan
ISBN : 9781118342305
Genre : Science
File Size : 25. 72 MB
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Examines new research on the role of cholesterol in regulating ion channels and receptors and its effect on health Drawing together and analyzing all the latest research findings, this book explores the role of cholesterol in the regulation of ion channels and receptors, including its pathological effects. It is the first book to comprehensively describe the complex mechanisms by which cholesterol regulates two major classes of membrane proteins. Moreover, it sheds new light on how cholesterol affects essential cellular functions such as the contraction of the heart, propagation of nerve impulses, and regulation of blood pressure and kidney function. Written and edited by leading pioneers in the field, Cholesterol Regulation of Ion Channels and Receptors is divided into three parts: Part I, Cholesterol Regulation of Membrane Properties, introduces the heterogeneity of cholesterol distribution in biological membranes and the physical and biological implications of the formation of cholesterol-rich membrane domains. Part II, Cholesterol Regulation of Ion Channels, examines the mechanisms underlying cholesterol sensitivities of ion channels, including the regulation of ion channels by cholesterol as a boundary lipid. Part III, Cholesterol Regulation of Receptors, explores the latest discoveries concerning how cholesterol regulates distinct types of receptors, including G-protein coupled receptors, LDL and scavenger receptors, and innate immune system receptors. Increased levels of cholesterol represent a major health risk. Understanding cholesterol regulation of ion channels and receptors is essential for facilitating the development of new therapeutic strategies to alleviate the impact of pathological cholesterol conditions. With this book as their guide, readers have access to the most current knowledge in the field.

Regulation Of The Acetylcholine Receptor Function By Membrane Cholesterol In Xenopus Laevis Oocytes

Author :
ISBN : 0549649662
Genre :
File Size : 47. 47 MB
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The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a ligand-gated ion channel responsible for the transmission of action potentials across cholinergic synapses. The nAChR is a membrane protein and as such lipid-protein interactions are of fundamental importance in the regulation of its function. Alterations in the structure of the nAChR due to mutations may result in modifications in functionality which deviates from that of the wild type (WT) nAChR. In addition to structural alterations, because the nAChR is a membrane-bound protein, alterations in the membrane lipid composition may also lead to modifications in the functionality of the nAChR. Herein, the results of an investigation aimed at providing insight into the mechanisms by which structural alterations in regions of the nAChR which are presumably exposed to the lipid as well as alterations in the cholesterol content of cell membranes affect the functionality of the nAChR. By combining an array of approaches, alterations in channel kinetics, conductance, and expression profiles were studied as potential causes for the increase in macroscopic current which follows membrane cholesterol depletion in oocytes expressing the alphaC418W nAChR, which is the first lipid-exposed nAChR mutation known to produce a congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) in humans. In addition, the functional consequences of increasing the membrane cholesterol content of oocytes expressing the electric ray organ nAChR, the muscle-type nAChR or the neuronal nAChR were assessed to determine the relative tolerance of these subtypes of receptors to increases in cholesterol content which parallel those observed in physiological scenarios related to aging. Interestingly, while the electric ray organ and neuronal nAChRs are relatively intolerant to physiologically relevant increases in cholesterol content, the muscle-type nAChR remain functional upon the same increase in cholesterol content. These results suggest that the muscle-type nAChR may have developed a mechanism to remain functional even at the higher cholesterol concentrations that accompany aging.

Cholesterol Binding And Cholesterol Transport Proteins

Author : J. Robin Harris
ISBN : 9048186226
Genre : Science
File Size : 33. 61 MB
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Knowledge of cholesterol and its interaction with protein molecules is of fundamental importance in both animal and human biology. This book contains 22 chapters, dealing in depth with structural and functional aspects of the currently known and extremely diverse unrelated families of cholesterol-binding and cholesterol transport proteins. By drawing together this range of topics the Editor has attempted to correlate this broad field of study for the first time. Technical aspects are given considerable emphasis, particularly in relation cholesterol reporter molecules and to the isolation and study of membrane cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-rich "raft" domains. Cell biological, biochemical and clinical topics are included in this book, which serve to emphasize the acknowledged and important benefits to be gained from the study of cholesterol and cholesterol-binding proteins within the biomedical sciences and the involvement of cholesterol in several clinical disorders. It is hoped that by presenting this topic in this integrated manner that an appreciation of the fact that there is much more that needs to be taken into account, studied and understood than the widely discussed "bad and good cholesterol" associated, respectively, with the low- and high-density lipoproteins, LDL and HDL.

Plant Metabolism And Biotechnology

Author : Hiroshi Ashihara
ISBN : 047074703X
Genre : Science
File Size : 31. 70 MB
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Various plant metabolites are useful for human life, and the induction and reduction of these metabolites using modern biotechnical technique is of enormous potential important especially in the fields of agriculture and health. Plant Metabolism and Biotechnology describes the biosynthetic pathways of plant metabolites, their function in plants, and some applications for biotechnology. Topics covered include: biosynthesis and metabolism of starch and sugars lipid biosynthesis symbiotic nitrogen fixation sulfur metabolism nucleotide metabolism purine alkaloid metabolism nicotine biosynthesis terpenoid biosynthesis benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis monoterpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis flavonoid biosynthesis pigment biosynthesis: anthocyanins, betacyanins and carotenoids metabolomics in biotechnology Plant Metabolism and Biotechnology is an essential guide to this important field for researchers and students of biochemistry, plant biology, metabolic engineering, biotechnology, food science, agriculture, and medicine.

Electrical Diseases Of The Heart

Author : Ihor Gussak
ISBN : 9781447148814
Genre : Medical
File Size : 20. 94 MB
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Electrical Disease of the Heart, 2nd Edition, volume 1, provides a valuable insight to the latest developments in the field of cardiac electrophysiology and clinical electrocardiology. Each chapter includes up-to-date results of studies aimed at providing an understanding of the electrical function of the heart in health and disease, established and evidence-based knowledge of clinical outcomes, areas of controversy, and future trends. This book is highly relevant to a broad audience, ranging from medical and graduate students, to clinicians and scientists.

Cholesterol And Presynaptic Glutamate Transport In The Brain

Author : Tatiana Borisova
ISBN : 9781461477594
Genre : Medical
File Size : 65. 57 MB
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Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS and disturbances in glutamate transport contribute to a number of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. Appropriate levels of cholesterol are very important for the proper functioning of glutamate transport while unbalanced levels of cholesterol have been implicated in the pathogenesis of disorders such as stroke, ischemia, traumatic brain injury, and neurotoxicity. In the proposed book, the author presents data from the literature and from her own lab to address the extent to and way in which membrane cholesterol modulates presynaptic glutamate transport and whether lowering the level of cholesterol available can offer some neuroprotective benefits.​

Berne Levy Physiology Updated Edition

Author : Bruce M. Koeppen
ISBN : 9780323080309
Genre : Medical
File Size : 78. 13 MB
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Berne and Levy Physiology has long been respected for its scientifically rigorous approach and now includes major updates to bring you all of the latest knowledge in the field. Bruce M. Koeppen and Bruce A. Stanton present a honed and shortened edition that emphasizes the core information needed by students of physiology today and features a full-color design and artwork to enhance readability and enrich your comprehension of every concept. With access to the full contents online at Student Consult, this time-honored book delivers an in-depth understanding of physiology more powerfully and effectively than ever before. Describes all of the mechanisms that control and regulate bodily function using a clear and intuitive organ system-based approach. Provides a rich understanding of the body's dynamic processes through key experimental observations and examples. Includes Student Consult access to the complete and searchable contents of the book online, as well as relevant bonus content from other Student Consult titles, an image gallery, 10 physiology animations, and much more. Features updated coverage throughout to expand your understanding of the most current trends in physiology and medicine, including the latest cellular and molecular knowledge. Includes shaded boxes that highlight and explain important clinical and molecular information. Presents new section editors who ensure that you are getting the freshest, most clinically relevant information available today. Summarizes need-to-know information in each chapter with Key Points sections.

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